Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement
Overview of Body-Worn Camera Use by Law Enforcement
In a sample of police departments surveyed in 2013, approximately 75 percent of them reported that they did not use body-worn cameras. The survey was funded by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services and conducted by the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF).
PERF’s report about the survey notes a number of perceived benefits for using body-worn cameras, including better evidence documentation and increased accountability and transparency. But the report also notes many other factors that law enforcement executives must consider, such as privacy issues, officer and community concerns, data retention and public disclosure policies, and financial considerations. The costs of implementing body-worn cameras include not only the cost of the cameras, but also of any ancillary equipment (e.g., tablets that let officers tag data in the field), data storage and management, training, administration, and disclosure.
To date, little research is available to help law enforcement executives decide whether and how to implement the use of body-worn cameras in their departments.
NIJ is currently funding two studies — a CNA Corporation study of the impact of body-worn cameras in the Las Vegas Metro Police Department and a Los Angeles Police Foundation evaluation of body-worn video technology in the Los Angeles Police Department.
Additionally, through the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) system, NIJ funded the development of a primer on body-worn cameras for law enforcement and a market survey of camera systems.
Ongoing NIJ-Funded Research on Body-Worn Cameras
NIJ is currently funding two studies on body-worn cameras:
Research on the Impact of Technology on Policing Strategies. In 2013, NIJ funded CNA Corporation to examine the impact of body-worn cameras in the Las Vegas Metro Police Department. Researchers will study the implementation of body-worn cameras in the department, including adherence to department policy and the effect of sergeants on patrol officers’ use of body-worn cameras. Researchers also will study the use of body-worn cameras by 400 officers in the field to learn about the effect of body-worn cameras in police-citizen encounters, including measures of use of force. Finally, the researchers will conduct a cost-benefit analysis to estimate the time officers spend in court or on suspension as a result of negative interactions with citizens.
Testing and Evaluating Body-Worn Video Technology in the Los Angeles Police Department. In 2014, NIJ funded the Los Angeles Police Foundation to conduct an evaluation of body-worn video technology in the Los Angeles Police Department. Researchers will study how body-worn video technology is used in the field and its impact on police-citizen behavior and on crime. The study will address a number of questions that fall into five general categories:
- Using body-worn video technology
- Privacy concerns
- Police legitimacy and changes in police services
- Crime reduction
- Use of advanced analytics
Among the sources of data that researchers will use are information on citizen complaints, use of force and crime. They also will conduct interviews and surveys with officers and interviews with citizens.
Primer on Body-Worn Cameras for Law Enforcement
Developed by the NIJ-funded NLECTC Sensor, Surveillance and Biometric Technologies Center of Excellence, A Primer on Body-Worn Cameras for Law Enforcement provides an introduction to body-worn camera systems. The 2012 report discusses the functions and features of body-worn camera systems and highlights issues and factors that law enforcement organizations should consider before and during implementation.
Technical Guidance on Body-Worn Camera Technologies
Agencies should consider how body worn cameras will meet their mission needs and requirements prior to procurement and use of the technology. To provide general guidance to law enforcement practitioners, NIJ, NIST and the FBI developed a table listing operating characteristics and associated functionality descriptions based on existing technical resources about criminal justice use of video., The operating characteristics and associated functionality descriptions in the table can help agencies determine what they need as they consider the commercial products available.
Market Survey of Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice
The NIJ-funded NLECTC Sensor, Surveillance and Biometric Technologies Center of Excellence conducted a market survey on body-worn cameras for criminal justice. The survey, published in 2014, aggregates and summarizes information on a number of makes and models of body-worn cameras available today, including the approximate costs of each unit.
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Which is Better? Wi-Fi Streaming Technology That’s Viewable in Realtime, or Standalone Hidden Cameras That Record to an SD Card?
Having been in the business of hidden surveillance for some time we have seen a huge rise in wi-fi devices using apps that allow users to stream the feed from their hidden cameras. At the same time there has been a decline in demand for the traditional stand-alone devices that record captured video to a memory card for later review. Wi-fi technology (sometimes, and not always correctly, referred to as the internet of things) certainly seems convenient and flashy but sometimes value is in the eye of the beholder. Do stand-alone DVRs still have a place in the market and in homes? Let’s talk about a few of the pros and cons of each while determining how to spend that hard earned money.
Our battery powered stand-alone hidden cameras and AC powered hidden DVRs have been used reliably for over a decade. Its set-up is relatively simple, a few clicks with the included remote sets time and date, motion activation preferences, recording time. Simply remove the memory card, pop it into your computer and review your captured video as easily as surfing social media. If we’re making comparisons this hidden camera DVR is the 1989 Chrysler LeBaron that your parents let you drive in high school. Sure it’s a bit stripped down but it won’t leave you stranded wondering what your teenagers are doing down in the basement. And speaking of teenagers in the basement, this DVR is no Snapchat nightmare waiting to happen…. a hidden camera that’s not connected to the internet is almost impossible to hack.
Now we all want to grow out of that ’89 LeBaron at some point. And the shiny new Acura bought with our first grown-up paycheck sure looks nice sitting in the driveway. But in time we’re bound to find out that all its bells and whistles mean there’s more to maintain. The same principles apply to wi-fi electronics. While we want all our wi-fi gadgets to work without fail, a hidden camera is not an iPhone. For the best user experience we have a couple of suggestions: First, determine if you need Peer to Peer (P2P) or Peer to Internet (P2I) connectivity. Our Zone Shield and Xtreme Life cameras can work with either. For a P2P connection the camera’s own wi-fi module generates a signal that you can stream on an app as long as you’re in range of the camera. It’s great for checking on nap time while trying to get that last little bit of yard work done.
For a P2I connection the camera connects through your router using your network SSID just like any home automation device. Our wi-fi hidden cameras do come with 720p resolution but that HD resolution also means they have a pretty hefty appetite for bandwidth when connected via P2I. Think about how many wi-fi devices are plugged in at your house…. tablets, phones, TV receivers? Our wifi module has a strong signal but it’s only as good as your router signal. For the best results we recommend setting the camera to VGA 640×480, the higher the definition the more bandwidth your camera will chew up.
Fortunately our Zone Shield and Xtreme Life families have both stand-alone DVRs and wi-fi connected hidden cameras available. Refer to the table below to determine if your hidden surveillance problems can be solved with the hidden camera equivalent of a spiffy Acura or a reliable Chrysler.
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Zone Shield Wi-Fi cameras allow easy remote viewing anywhere on the free EZ-See app. Event notifications alert you when the hidden camera has noticed activity at your home or office. Connect multiple cameras and view live streaming video from all devices on your tablet, smart phone or PC.
The New Smoke Detector Hidden Camera with Wifi Remote Smart Phone and Internet Viewing Its motion activated sensor springs to life faster than any other covert system so there’s no chance of missing an intruder. Because you never know when someone in your home will harm your family or your property the SleuthGear Xtreme Life is the right product to have if you don’t know when you’ll need it.
Up to 30 days of operation in standby mode on a single battery charge. Because it can work without wires, it can be placed anywhere and the PIR (heat sensor) conserves energy so that there is little worry of battery failure. Its Just Like our Xtremelife Version, but Better!
The future of DIY surveillance is Wi-Fi enabled covert cameras
Over the past few years, several Wi-Fi enabled overt cameras have entered the market, making DIY home and business surveillance simple and offering greater flexibility over connected homes and businesses without having to enter into long-term contracts and subscription-based services. In fact, we launched our own Wi-Fi home monitoring system in mid-2015.
While these cameras are a cost-effective way to monitor what’s happening while you’re away – and can serve as a powerful deterrent for anyone thinking about doing harm to people or property – the mere nature of the cameras being unconcealed may not offer you a complete picture of what’s going on while you’re at work, on vacation, or even while sleeping with night-owl teenagers coming and going.
This is where our exclusive, American designed SleuthGear® brand of surveillance cameras comes in. We admit, it has taken us awhile to make our Zone Shield and Xtreme Life lines Wi-Fi enabled, and for good reason. We’ve worked hard to find the right technology to offer you the quality you’ve come to expect of the SleuthGear® brand. We weren’t going to settle for substandard technology and inconsistent performance. That’s why we are especially excited about these line extensions. Our Wi-Fi hidden cameras offer true live view, require no Ethernet plugs and can perform up to 200 feet line of sight (LOS) from the router.
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Its motion activated sensor springs to life faster than any other covert system so there’s no chance of missing an intruder. Because you never know when someone in your home will harm your family or your property the SleuthGear Xtreme Life is the right product to have if you don’t know when you’ll need it.
Up to 30 days of operation in standby mode on a single battery charge. Because it can work without wires, it can be placed anywhere and the PIR (heat sensor) conserves energy so that there is little worry of battery failure.
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Recently we introduced the SleuthGear Xtreme Life Hidden Camera product line which feature all-in-one hidden camera systems that can last for an entire year on a single battery charge. The response has been very exciting.…
Both feature PIR heat sensors long life batteries and invisible infrared sensors for reliable surveillance and recording in almost total darkness. Like Recluse Xtreme Life is part of KJB’s exclusively designed SleuthGear family.…
The SC7000 offers the convenience of a battery-powered camera KJB C7000 without the typical short battery-life constraints The KJB C7000 new XtremeLife camera KJB C7000 features the longest-life battery on the market.…
In fact it can standby for up to a year on a single charge or take videos continuously for up to 20 hours. xtremelife rock camera. To maintain its stealthiness manufacturer KJB Security didn’t even point out where the pinhole is.…